CitationType of OutcomeSpecific OutcomeMechanism/Factors/Conditions mobilization leads to outcomeTime PeriodLocationData
Abramowitz, Stephen I, and Alberta J. Nassi. 1981. "Keeping the Faith: Psychosocial Correlates of Activism Persistence into Middle Adulthood." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 10(6): 507-523.biographicalenduring political radicals; more self expressive, sensitive and nonconformist; stronger family legacy of social concernactivist participation, family background1964-1979US- California (Berkeley)30 former students at the University of California, Berkeley who were arrested during the 1964 Free Speech Movement sit-in
Almeida P, Stearns LB. 1998. Political opportunities and local grassroots environmental movements: the case of Minamata. Soc. Probl. 45:37–60politicallaw passed, favorable court verdict, compensation for victims, public apology, creation of new programNontraditional and institutionally disruptive tactics in time of expanded political opportunities1955-1974Japandata from newspapers on movement activity, data on financial support given to movement
Almeida, Paul D. 2006. “Social Movement Unionism, Social Movement Partyism, and Policy Outcomes.” Pp. 57-73 in H. Johnston and P. Almeida, eds, Latin American Social Movements: Globalization, Democratization, and Transnational Networks. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.PoliticalEconomic Policy/PrivatizationMovement Alliances with Oppositional Political Parties1990-2003El SalvadorArchival/Case Study
Almeida, Paul D. 2008. “The Sequencing of Success: Organizing Templates and Neoliberal Policy Outcomes.” Mobilization 13(2): 165-187.PoliticalPrivatization, Austeritylearning from the past, multi-sectoral alliances1990-2003Latin AmericaNewspaper Data, Interviews
Amenta E, Caren N, Olasky SJ. 2005. Age for leisure? Political mediation and the impact of the pension movement on US old-age policy. American. Sociological. Review. 70:516–38.politicalbenefits increaseelectoral pressure1934-1950US-Nationalstate level data on political opportunities and movement activity over time
Amenta E. 2006. When Movements Matter: The Townsend Plan and the Rise of Social Security. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.politicalbenefits increaseelectoral pressure1934-1950US-Nationaldata on political opportunities and movement activity over time
Amenta, Edwin, Bruce G. Carruthers, and Yvonne Zylan. 1992. "A Hero for the Aged? The Townsend Plan, the Political Mediation Model, and U.S. Old-Age Policy, 1934–1950." American Journal of Sociology 98(2): 308–339. politicalelection of favorable candidatesSocial movement endorsement + strong membership + favorable political conditions1934-1950US-Nationalstate level data on political opportunities and movement activity over time
Andrews CJ. 1998. Public policy and the geography of U.S. environmentalism. Social. Science. Quarterly. 79:55–73.politicalfavorable state policiesgreater membership in movement organizations1994US-National; US-New Jerseystate level data on movement membership and relevant state policies
Andrews, Kenneth T. 1997. "The Impacts of Social Movements on the Political Process: A Study of the Civil Rights Movement and Black Electoral Politics in Mississippi." American Sociological Review 62: 800-819.politicalbroadening mobilization in the short term and limiting the acquisition of political power by Blacks in the long termviolent resistance1960s-1980sUS-Mississippicounty level data on black civil rights actions, resources, and political participation
Andrews, Kenneth T. 2001. "Social Movements and Policy Implementation: The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement and the War on Poverty, 1965 to 1971." American Sociological Review 66(1): 71–95.politicalpolicy implementationstrong movement --> access to decision-making bodies1965-1971US-Mississippidata on poverty programs over time and case study of interactions between movement and opponents
Andrews, Kenneth T. 2004. Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement and Its Legacy. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.politicalpolicy funding and contentdirect negotiation + persuasive and disruptive tactics1960s-1980sUS-Mississippicounty level data on outcomes (elections, antipoverty programs, school desegregation) and case studies of movement activity
Arthur, Mikaila Mariel Lemonik. 2008. "Social Movements in Organizations." Sociology Compass 2:1014-30.organizationalgeneral review articlegeneral review articlen/an/an/a
Arthur, Mikaila Mariel Lemonik. 2009. "Thinking Outside the Master's House: New Knowledge Movements and the Emergence of Academic Disciplines." Social Movement Studies 8:73-87.organizationalnew academic disciplinesnew knowledge movements1970s-presentprimarily US/Canadasecondary data
Arthur, Mikaila Mariel Lemonik. 2011. Student Activism and Curricular Change in Higher Education. Surrey, UK: Asghate.organizationalnew academic programs in colleges and universitiesorganizational mediation model1970s-presentUnited Statesarchival and interview data purpose-collected for this study
Astin AW, Astin HS, Bayer AE, Bisconti AD. 1975. The Power of Protest. San Francisco: Jossey-Bassinstitutional; biographicalnew educational offerings and liberalizing of rules; more discussion of politics and more liberal viewsdisruptiveness; participation1966-1971US-Nationallongitudinal data from 22 colleges, including interviews, documents, and newspapers from each
Banaszak LA. 1996. Why Movements Succeed or Fail. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.politicallegislation passedresources + political opportunities + frames1920s; 1960-1971US-National; Sweden62 in depth interviews with activists; 8 group interviews, pooled time series legislative data, movement membership data
Bartley, Tim, and Curtis Child. 2011. "Movements, Markets and Fields: The Effects of Anti-Sweatshop Campaigns on U.S. Firms, 1993-2000." Social Forces 90(2): 425-451.targetanti-sweatshop campaigns had negative effect on sales, stock prices, shapes specialized ratings of corporate responsibility, diminished previously positive corporate reputations to a modest degreehigh intensity campaigns, recency1993-2000US-NationalA comprehensive database of labor-related movement activity; information on anti-sweatshop movement; coverage in The New York Times and either other large newspapers
Baumgartner, Frank, and Christine Mahoney. 2005. "Social Movements, the Rise of New Issues, and the Public Agenda." in Routing the Opposition: Social Movements, Public Policy, and Democracy. Edited by David S. Meyer, Valerie Jennes, and Helen Ingram, 65-86. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.politicalpolicy changesocial movements that interact closely with other groups within their organizational field have a long-term impact on policy change1947-presentUS-NationalThe Policy Agenda Project; which includes compilations of all congressional hearings; all public laws; all stories in the Congressional Quarterly Almanac; a sample of abstracts taken from the New York Times index; and a consistently coded, inflation-adjusted, time-series of the federal budget
Bernstein AE. 2001. The Moderation Dilemma: Legislative Coalitions and the Politics of Family and Medical Leave. Pittsburgh: Univ. Pittsburgh Presspoliticalagenda settingEffective framing of proposals1990sUS-National; US-Connecticut; US-Massachusetts; US-North Carolina; US-Tennessee128 interviews with legislators, staffers, interest groups
Bernstein, Mary. 2003. “Nothing Ventured, Nothing Gained? Conceptualizing Social Movement ‘Success’ in the Lesbian and Gay Movement.” Sociological Perspectives 46(3):353-379.Political, Mobilization, CulturalThe decriminalization of consensual sodomy between consenting adults in private; mobilizational outcomes; cultural challenges to heteronormativity and discursive impactactivists must make trade-offs between achieving cultural, mobilization, and political goals and that these three types of goals do not always line up in a one-to-one fashion.1961-1991U.S.Historical/archival data, interview data
Bordt, Rebecca L. (1997) How Alternative Ideas Become Institutions: The Case of Feminist Collectives. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 26:132–55.culturalsubcultures (within movements)embeddedness in multiple environments1960s-1980sUS-Nationalqualitative historical analysis of feminist collective as an institutional form
Bosi, Lorenzo. 2006. "The Dynamics of Social Movement Development: Northern Ireland's Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s." Mobilization 11(1): 81-100.intra-movementThe civil rights movements in Northern Ireland changed from peaceful to reformist, then to militant insurgencyshifting political opportunities1960sNorthern Ireland27 semi-structured interviews with secondary sources and archival and newspaper research
Boudet, H.S. (in press). An “insiteful” comparison: Contentious politics in liquefied natural gas facility siting in the US. MIT Projections 11.politicaloutcome of energy facility proposals2000-2005U.S. (various locations)Newspapers, regulatory documentation, interviews, census data
Burstein, Paul, and April Linton. 2002. "The Impact of Political Parties, Interest Groups, and Social Movement Organizations on Public Policy: Some Recent Evidence and Theoretical Concerns." Social Forces 81(2): 380-408.politicalpolicy changeorganizational activities that respond to the electoral concerns of elected officials1990-2000n/a (literature used as data vary)All relevant articles in the three most prestigious sociology journals and three most prestigious political science journals
Burstein, Paul, and William Freudenburg. 1978. "Changing public policy: the impact of public opinion, War costs, and anti-war demonstrations on senate voting on Vietnam War motions, 1964–73." American Journal of Sociology 84(1):99–122.politicalincreased number of favorable Senate votesdemonstrations1964-1973US-Nationaldata on congressional voting, demonstrations, and other factors that might impact voting
Burstein, Paul. 1985. Discrimination, Job, and Politics: The Struggle for Equal Employment Opportunity in the United States since the New Deal.Chicago: Univ. Chicago Presspoliticalfavorable policiesincreased salience of issue1945-1980US-Nationaldata on public option, congressional voting, movement activity
Button JW. 1978. Black Violence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Presspoliticalnew programsviolence (but only under some conditions)1963-1968US-Nationalinterviews, surveys, census data, and archival data on riots and govt agency response to the riots
Casquete, Jesus. 2006. "The Power of Demonstrations." Social Movement Studies 5(1): 45-60.culturalgroup solidarityritualized mass demonstrations1998-2001Basque Countrydata from Basque police
Clemens, Elisabeth S. (1998) To Move Mountains: Collective Action and the Possibility of Institutional Change. In Marco G. Giugni, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly (eds.), From Contention to Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 109-123. institutional; culturalcreation of new alternative institutions and practiceswithdrawn from dominant institutions and practices; disruption of dominant institutions and practicesn/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)
Cornwall M, King BG, Legerski EM, Dahlin EC, Schiffman KS. 2007. Signals or mixed signals: why opportunities for mobilization are not opportunities for policy reform. Mobilization 12:239–54.politicallaw passage in one house of the legislaturesocial movement challenge is perceived as threat to careers of legislators1876-1918US-Nationaldata on state-level movement mobilization and on state-level law passage
Cortright, David. 1991. "Assessing Peace Movement Effectiveness in the 1980s." Peace and Change 16:46-63.politicalinternational treaty signedmedia attention; changed public opinion1980sUS-Nationaldata on media and public opinion
Costain, Anne N., and Steven Majstorovic. 1994. "Congress, Social Movements and Public Opinion: Multiple Origins of Women's Rights Legislation." Political Research Quarterly 47(1):111-35politicallegislation introducedmovement activity + favorable public option + congressional receptiveness1950-1986US-Nationalprotest event data from the NY; data on legislative activity and laws
Cress, Daniel M., and David A. Snow. 2000. "The outcomes of homeless mobilization: the influence of organization, disruption, political mediation and framing." American Journal of Sociology 105:1063–104.politicalsecuring rights and relief from government agenciesframing1980sBoston, Denver, Detroit, Houston, Minneapolis, Oakland, Philadelphia, and Tucsondata on organizational, tactical, political, and framing variables and outcomes
d’Anjou, Leo, and John Van Male (1998) Between Old and New: Social Movements and Cultural Change. Mobilization 3:207–26.culturalvalues, beliefs and opinionsframing; cultural opportunities1787-1792Great Britainqualitative case study of movement campaign
d’Anjou, Leo. 1996. Social Movements and Cultural Change: The First Abolition Campaign Revisited. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.culturalvalues, beliefs and opinionsframing1787-1792Great Britainhistorical case study, analysis of media discourse and framing
Demerath, N.J. Ill, Gerald Marwell, and Michael Aiken. 1971. Dynamics of Idealism. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.biographicalcontinued commitment to leftist attitudes but not necessarily political activismradicalized by participation but disillusioned about prospect for change1969US-Nationallongitudinal sample, questionnaires
Diani, Mario. 1997. "Social movements and social capital: a network perspective on movement outcomes." Mobilization: An International Quarterly 2.2: 129-147. biographical; culturalsocial capital; subcultural;participation; conflictn/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)
Edwards, Bob, and Sam Marullo (1995) Organizational Mortality in a Declining Social Movement: The Demise of Peace Movement Organizations in the End of the Cold War Era. American Sociological Review, 60, 908–27.intra-movementincreased chances of organizational survivalties to other organizations1988-1992US-Nationaldata on organization mortality of stratified, national longitudinal sample of peace movement organizations
Epstein, Barbara (1991)Political Protest and Cultural Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.inter-movementtacticsindividual activists with membership in more than one movement1960s-1980sUS-Nationalunclear
Epstein, Steven (1996) Impure Science: AIDS, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge. Berkeley: University of California Press.cultural; institutionalscience and scientific practicesmovement institutional insiders1981-1995US-Nationalpublished instances of claims-making found in scientific and medical journal articles, mass media news reports, articles in the gay and lesbian press, activist documents and publications, and government documents, extensive interviews with more than thirty of the principals in the story (researchers, activists, and government officials), conferences, meetings, forums, demonstrations, and other public events that I attended
Evans, Sara (1979) Personal Politics. New York: Knopf.inter-movementstart new movementdissatisfaction with movement1960s-1970sUS-Nationalunclear, historical case study
Eyerman and Jamison. 1998. Music and Social Movements: Mobilizing Traditions in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.culturalmusicproduction of culture1950s-1970sUS-National; Swedencomparative case study tracing musical and movement development
Eyerman, Ron, and Andrew Jamison. 1995. Social Movements and Cultural Transformation: Popular Music in the 1960s. Media, Culture, and Society 17: 449–68.culturalmusicmovements and markets1950s-1970sUS-Nationalanalysis of form and content of popular music
Eyerman, Ron, and Scott Barretta. 1996. From the 30s to the 60s: The Folk Music Revival in the United States. Theory and Society 25:501–43.culturalmusicproduction of culture1930-1960sUS-Nationalcomparative case study of two waves of music and protest
Fantasia, Rick. 1988. Cultures of Solidarity: Consciousness, Action and Contemporary American Workers. Berkeley: University of California Press.culturalsubcultures (within movements)contentious interactions1980sUS-National; US-New Jersey; US-Vermont; US-Iowathree ethnographic case studies of local labor movement activity
Farrell, Amy. 1995. "‘‘Like a Tarantula on a Banana Boat’’: Ms. Magazine, 1972–1989." In Myra Marx Ferree and Patricia Yancey Martin (eds.), Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women’s Movement. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 53–68.culturalliterature (magazines)movements and markets1972-1989US-Nationalpublished and unpublished letters from readers to magazine, data on magazine's advertising and financing over time
Fendrich JM. 1993. Ideal Citizens: The Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement. Albany: State Univ. New York Pressbiographicalcontinued political engagement and oppositional political attitudesparticipation created identity as good citizen which required future engagement into order to maintain1960s-1980sUS-Florida; US-Texas10 and 25 year follow up surveys with white and black former activists
Fendrich, James M. 1974. "Activists Ten Years Later: A Test of Generational Unit Continuity." Joumal of Social Issues 30:95-118.biographicalconcentration in teaching professions; continued commitment to leftist political attitudesparticipation in activism1961-1971US-Floridapanel survey of former student activists and former non-activist students
Fendrich, James M. and Alison T. Tarleau. 1973. "Marching to a Different Drummer: Occupational and Political Correlates of Former Student Activists." Social Forces 52:245-53.biographicalcontinued commitment to leftist attitudes; occupational outcomes; continued participation in activismparticipation1971US-Floridapanel survey of former student activists and former non-activist students
Fendrich, James Max and Ellis M. Krauss. 1978. "Student Activism and Adult Left-Wing Politics: A Causal Model of Political Socialization for Black, White and Japanese Students of the 1960s Generation Movements" Research In Social Movements, Conflict and Change, edited by Louis Kriesberg. Greenwich, CT: JAI.biographicalcontinued participation in activism or politics1971data from Fendrich and Tarleau 1973 and Krauss 1974
Fendrich, James Max and Kenneth L. Lovoy. 1988. "Back to the Future: Adult Political Behavior of Former Political Activists." American Sociological Review 53:780-84.biographicalcontinued participation in activism or politics1960s; 1986US-Floridapanel survey of former student activists and former non-activist students
Fendrich, James Max, and Robert W. Turner. 1989. "The Transition from Student to Adult Politics." Social Forces 67(4): 1049-1057.biographicalIncrease in political involvement of former activists and former uninvolved with age, overall increase in conservatismgenerational, period, and maturation effects1986US- Florida85 former students who had attended Florida State University
Flammang, Janet A. 1987. "Women Made a Difference: Comparable Worth In San Jose." In The Women’s Movements of the U.S. and Western Europe. Mueller, Carol, and Mary Katzenstein (eds.) Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.politicalpolicy changepolitical opportunity structure1980sUS-Californiainterviews with elected official and union members
Freeman, Jo. 1987. "Whom You Know Versus Whom You Represent: Feminist Influence in the Democratic and Republican Parties." In The Women’s Movements of the U.S. and Western Europe. Mueller, Carol, and Mary Katzenstein (eds.) Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 215-246.politicalshape party platformpluralistic orientation of party1972-1984US-Nationaldata on movement activity and party platforms
Frey, R. Scott, Thomas Dietz, and Linda Kalof. 1992. "Characteristics of Successful American Protest Groups: Another Look at Gamson's Strategy of Social Protest." American Journal of Sociology 98(2): 368-387.politicalacceptance and new advantagesmoderate goals; disruptiveness; centralized bureaucratic organization; historical crisis1800-1945US-Nationaldata on 53 protest groups gathered from historical sources
Gamson, William A. ([1975] 1990) The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.politicalacceptance and new advantagesmoderate goals; disruptiveness; centralized bureaucratic organization; historical crisis1800-1945US-Nationaldata on 53 protest groups gathered from historical sources
Gamson, William A., and Andre Modigliani. 1989. "Media Discourse and Public Opinion of Nuclear Power: A Constructionist Approach." American Journal of Sociology 95(1): 1–37.culturalvalues, beliefs and opinions; discourseframing; media practices1950-1989US-Nationalmedia discourse analysis and public opinion survey data
Gamson. William A. 1998. Social Movements and Cultural Change. In Marco G. Giugni, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly (eds.), From Contention to Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 57–77. culturalmedia coverage; discourseframe sponsorship; media practices; cultural resonances; narrative fitn/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)
Gelb J, Lief Palley M. 1987. Women and Public Policies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. 2nd ed.politicallegislation passedimage of broad-based support; moderate goals (narrow, less threatening to dominant values); existence of policy network 1960s-1980sUS-Nationalinterviews with leaders and congressional staffers, organizational records
Gelb J. 1989. Feminism and Politics. Berkeley, CA: Univ. Calif. Presspoliticallegislation passedseparation from institutional interests --> independent strategies and agenda1970s-1980sUS-National, United Kingdom; Swedeninterviews with feminist scholars and activists, as well as women active in political parties, unions, and civic groups and women in elective and appointive political positions
Gelb, Joyce. 1987. "Social Movement 'Success': A Contemporary Analysis of Feminism in the United States and the United Kingdom." In The Women’s Movements of the U.S. and Western Europe. Mueller, Carol, and Mary Katzenstein (eds.) Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 267-289.politicalpolicy changepolitical opportunity structure1970sUS-National; Englandunclear, comparative case study
Giugni, Marco. 2004. Social Protest and Policy Change: Ecology, Antinuclear, and Peace Movements in Comparative Perspective. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.politicalpolicy reformpolitical alliances and public opinion1975-1999US-National, Italy, Switzerlandcontent analysis of New York Times, Corriere della Sera, and Neue Zurcher Zeitung newspapers
Giugni, Marco. 2007. Useless Protest? A Time-Series Analysis of the Policy Outcomes of Ecology, Anti-Nuclear, And Peace Movements in the United States, 1977-1995. Mobilization: An International Quarterly 12(1): 53-77.politicalgovernment spendingmobilization + support from political allies + favorable public opinion1977-1995US-NationalNew York Times data on movement activity, public opinion data from NORC and Harris polls
Glenn, John K. 2003. "Contentious Politics and Democratization: Comparing the Impact of Social Movements on the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe." Political Studies 51: 103-120.politicaldemocratizationmobilization and bargaining1989Poland and Czechoslovakiaarchival research, interviews, public proclamations and statements published in the media and primary literature in each country and secondary scholarly literature
Goldstone, Jack A. 1980. "The Weakness of Organization: A New Look at Gamson's The Strategy of Social Protest." American Journal of Sociology 85(5):1017-1042.politicalacceptance and new advantagesadopting non-displacement goals, incentives and bureaucratization for groups with a longer wait for attaining success1800-1945US-Nationaldata on 53 protest groups gathered from historical sources
Gupta, Devashree. 2009. "The power of Incremental Outcomes: How Small Victories and Defeats Affect Social Movement Organizations." Mobilization 14(4): 417-432.inter-movementbandwagoning, satiety, movement aid and supportrevenue streams and programmatic spending1997-2007US-Nationalrevenue and spending information for 105 organizations that are or have been involved in the anti-death penalty movement
Halebsky, Stephen. 2006. "Explaining the Outcomes of Antisuperstore Movements: A Comparative Analysis of Six Communities." Mobilization: An International Journal 11(4): 443-460.politicalsuccess and partial success preventing corporate siting.optional evidence, broad framing, media support, absence of countermovement, benefits from corporate blunders1990sUS-Washington, US-California, US-Michigan, US-Wisconsin, US-Ohiocase studies of superstore conflicts in six small cities
Hall, Stuart, and Tony Jefferson (eds.) (1976) Resistance through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-War Britain. New York: Holmes & Meier.culturalsubcultures (as distinct subcultures)contentious interactions1950s-1970sGreat Britainparticipant observation
Hasso, Frances S. 2010. "Feminist Generations? The Long-Term Impact of Social Movement Involvement on Palestinian Women's Lives." In Readings on Social Movements: Origins, Dynamics, and Outcomes." Doug McAdam and David S. Snow, eds, 662-675.biographicalchanged worldviews and greater self-efficacyparticipation created new networks and allowed activists to imagine new possibilities1989 and 1995Palestinetwo-wave panel study with activists
Hathaway,Will, and David S. Meyer (1994) Competition and Cooperation in Social Movement Coalitions: Lobbying for Peace in the 1980s. Berkeley Journal of Sociology, 38, 157–83.inter-movementcreation of other movements; spillover (goals)social movement sector enabled recourses and legitimacy; coalitions1983-1990US-Nationalobservational, documentary, survey, and interview data from two coalitions
Hays SP, Esler M, Hays CE. 1996. Environmental commitment among the states: integrating alternative approaches to state environmental policy. Publius 26:41–58.politicalfavorable policy adoptiongreater membership in movement organizations1987-1991US-NationalGreen Policy Index's state composite score for sixty-seven policy initiatives= DV
Hebdige, Dick (1979) Subculture: The Meaning of Style. New York: Routledge.culturalsubcultures (as distinct subcultures)contentious interactions1950s-1970sGreat Britainparticipant observation
Isaac, Larry, & Lars Christiansen. 2002. “How the Civil Rights Movement Re-Vitalized Labor Militancy.” American Sociological Review 67 (October): 722-746. inter-movementworker strike militancy in private & public sectorscivil rights protests, ghetto rebellions, SMOs Mechanisms: formal channels, informal channels, overlapping personnel, cultural environment1948-81U.S.national time-series data
Isaac, Larry, and William R. Kelly. 1982. “Developmental/Modernization Political Class struggle Theories of Welfare Expansion: The Case of the AFDC ‘Explosion’ in the States, 1960-1970.” Journal of Political & Military Sociology 10(Fall): 201-35.politicalwelfare/relief expenditures, rolls, benefits ghetto rebellions electoral instability Democratic party strength1960-70U.S.U.S state data
Isaac, Larry, and William R. Kelly. 1981. “Racial Insurgency, the State, And Welfare Expansion.” American Journal of Sociology 86 (May): 1348-1386.politicalwelfare/ relief expenditures & rollsghetto rebellion frequency & severity1947-76U.S.national time-series data
Isaac, Larry, Debra Street, & Stan Knapp. 1994. “Analyzing Historical Contingency With Formal Models: The Case of the ‘Relief Explosion’ and 1968.” Sociological Methods & Research 22 (August): 114-141.politicalwelfare/relief (AFDC rolls)poor peoples’ insurgencies & sequence of events in 19681950-88U.S.national time-series data
Isaac, Larry, Steve McDonald, & Greg Lukasik. 2006. “Takin’ it from the Streets: How the Sixties Mass Movement Revitalized Unionization.” American Journal of Sociology 112 (July): 46-96.inter-movementworker strike & unionization militancy in public & private sectorsNew Left insurgencies, New Left organizations, Union recognitions, Union bargaining laws1950-81U.S.national time-series data
Isaac, Larry. 2009. “Movements, Aesthetics, and Markets in Literary Change: Making the American Labor Problem Novel.” American Sociological Review 74 (December): 938-965.culturalemergence & trajectory of a new literary genre--the labor problem novellabor movement growth coupled with literary realism1870-1919U.S.national time-series data
Isserman, Maurice (1987) If I Had a Hammer: The Death of the Old Left and the Birth of the New Left. New York: Basic.inter-movementspillover (organizational forms)learned from failures of previous movement1940s-1970sUS-Nationalinterviews with former activists
Jacobs D, Helms R. 2001. Racial politics and redistribution: isolating the contingent influence of civil rights, riots, and crime on tax progressivity. Soc. Forces 80:91–121.politicalincreased tax progressivity; decreased tax progressivityCivil rights actions (especially during Democratic administration); Riots (especially during Republican administration)1950-1989US-Nationaltime series data on riots and tax progressivity
Jaynes A. 2002. Insurgency and policy outcomes: the impact of protest/riots on urban spending. J. Mil. Polit. Sociol. 30:90–112.politicalincreased spending on social programs; increased spending on social control (e.g. police)nonviolent protest; riots1952-1992US-NationalFiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation Project; Ethnic Collective Action in Contemporary Urban U.S. Project
Jennings, M. Kent and Richard G. Niemi. 1981. Generations and Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.biographicalcontinued participation in activism or politicsparticipation oriented protesters to deal with social problems in a particular way, an orientation that endured1964-1972US-Nationalsurvey data from random sample of 744 high school seniors and 932 of their parents
Johnson EW. 2008. Social movement size, organizational diversity and the making of federal law. Soc. Forces 86:967–93.politicalincrease the value of collective benefits included in bill; law passageLarger movement more supporters and resources; SMOs identify and problematize a diversity of new issues1968-1998US-NationalPolicy Agendas Project Public Laws Database
Kane, Melinda. 2010. "You've Won, Now What? The Influence of Legal Change on Gay and Lesbian Mobilization, 1974-1999." Sociological Quarterly 51(2): 255-277.intra-movementpost-movement activism after achieving goalspolicy change1974-1999US-Nationaldata collected from multiple sources including Gayellow Pages, the Council of City Governments, Human Sexuality Archive, NCES, Churches and Church Membership in the United States
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss (1968) Commitment and Social Organization: A Study of Commitment Mechanisms in Utopian Communities. American Sociological Review, 33, 499–517.culturalsubcultures (within movements)internal movement dynamics1780-1860US-Nationalhistorical data on 91 utopian communities
Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod. 1995. Discursive Politics and Feminist Activism in the Catholic Church. In Myra Marx Ferree and Patricia Yancey Martin (eds.), Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women’s Movement. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 35–52.cultural; institutionaldiscoursemovement institutional insiders1970s-1980sUS-Nationalunclear
Kerstin Hamann, Alison Johnston and John Kelly (2013) Striking concessions from governments: The outcomes of general strikes in Western Europe 1980-2009, Comparative Politics, 46(1): 23-41.Political, policy reformGovernment concessions to unions on welfare and labor policy reformsMobilization, protest, general strikes1980-2009Western Europe, EU15 plus NorwayPrimary data on strikes and outcomes
King, Brayden G. 2008. "A Political Mediation Model of Corporate Response to Social Movement Activism." Administrative Science Quarterly 53(3): 395-421.organizationalchange in corporate policymedia attention; decline in corporate reputation1990-2005US_NationalNew York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times
King, Brayden G., Keith G. Bentele, and Sarah A. Soule. 2007. "Protest and policymaking: explaining fluctuation in congressional attention to rights issues, 1960–1986." Social Forces 86(1): 137–63.politicalCongressional hearing on issues (a measure of agenda setting)Protest greater attention from lawmakers1960-1986US-NationalPolicy Agendas Project
King, Brayden G., Marie Cornwall, and Eric C. Dahlin. 2005. "Winning Woman Suffrage One Step at a Time: Social Movements and the Logic of the Legislative Process." Social Forces 83(3): 1211–1234.
politicalpolicy introduction (but not passage)SMO’s efforts at political lobbying, candidate campaigning, and cultural framing1848-1918US-Nationalprimary and secondary historical sources on legislation and movement activity collected by McCammon
Kitschelt, Herbert. 1986. "Political Opportunity Structures and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies." British Journal of Political Science 16(1): 57-85.politicalchange in national policypolitical opportunity structure1974-1984US, France, Sweden, West Germanyraw data from Nuclear News, "The World List of Nuclear Power Plants
Klatch, Rebecca. 1999. A Generation Divided: The New Left, The New Right, and the 1960s. Berkeley: University of California Press.biographicaloccupational outcomes, lower incomecountercultural resistance to conventional occupations1960s-1980sUS-Nationaldata on seventy-four SDS and YAF activists "from their political awakenings into their involvement and commitment during the 1960s, and into their adult lives"
Knopf, Jeffrey (1997) The Nuclear Freeze Movement's Effect on Policy. In Tom Rochon and David S. Meyer (eds.), Coalitions and Political Movements: The Lessons of the Nuclear Freeze. Boulder, CO: Lynn Rienner, 127-161.politicallegislation passedchanging public opinion (mass electoral pressure); shifting elite coalitions; bureaucratic use of movement ideas1980sUS-Nationalunclear; seems to just bring together secondary sources
Kolb, Felix. 2007. Protest and Opportunities: The Political Outcomes of Social Movements. Frankfurt and New York: Campus Verlag.politicalprocedural change, intra-institutional change, state transformationdisruption, public preference, political access, judicial, and international politicsnot specifiedAustria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, U.S.anti-nuclear energy movements from 18 OECD countries
Kousis, M. (2005) “State Responses as Economic and Political Threats and Opportunities in Southern European Environmental Contention" in M. Kousis and Charles Tilly (eds) Economic and Political Contention in Comparative Perspective, Boulder, Colorado: Paradigm Publishers (pp. 202-225).political, economic and environmentalState concessions and nonconcessions (indifference, repression,economically costly, soft concessions, hard concessions)political and economic opportunities and threats to environmental protest cases; state-movement interactions1974-1994Greece, Spain, PortugalProtest Case Analysis using 4 national newspapers and 5 ecology magazines in Greece, Spain and Portugal
Krauss, Ellis S. 1974. Japanese Radicals Revisited: Student Protest in Postwar Japanbiographicaloccupational outcomespolitical socialization through participation1960-1970Japanlongitudinal study of former activists- 53 surveys and 23 interviews
Kriesi, Hanspeter and Dominique Wisler. 1999. "The Impact of Social Movements on Political Institutions: A Comparison of the Introduction of Direct Legislation in Switzerland and the United States." In Marco G. Giugni, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly (eds.), How Social Movements Matter. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 97–115.politicalnew political procedure institutionalizedpolitical opportunities1960s-1920U.S.-National; Switzerlandunclear
Linders, Annulia. 2004. "Victory and Beyond: A Historical Comparative Analysis of the Outcomes of the Abortion Movements in Sweden and the United States." Sociological Forum 19(3): 371-404.institutional, cultural, politicalpolicy changepolitical opportunities, movement-countermovement interactions1960-1980US-National, Swedenparliamentary and government documents, health statistics, medical journals, official criminal records, newspapers, secondary data (existing literatures), magazine articles
Lohman, Susanne. 1994. "The Dynamics of Informational Cascades: The Monday Demonstrations In Leipzig, East Germany, 1989-91" World Politics 47:42-101.politicalregime changeunpredictability1989-1991East Germanyhistorical case study of fall of GDR
Lohman, Susanne. 1995. "A Signaling Model of Competitive Political Pressures." Economics and Politics 7:181-206.politicalpolicy changeunpredictability1991US-Nationalnewspaper data on two demonstrations
Luders, Joseph E. 2006. "The Economics of Movement Success: Business Responses to Civil Rights Mobilization." American Journal of Sociology 111(4):963-998.organizationalconcessions from economic actorseconomic disruptions, negative publicity, concession costs1960sUS-North Carolina, Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippiunclear; seems to just bring together secondary sources
Luders, Joseph E. 2010. The Civil Rights Movement and the Logic of Social Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.politicalpolicy changecost assessment/vulnerability to protest activities1960sUS-Southunclear; seems to just bring together secondary sources
MacDougal J, Minicucci SD, Myers D. 1995.The House of Representatives' vote on the Gulf War, 1991: measuring peace movement impact. Res. Soc. Mov. Confl. Change 18:255-84.politicalfavorable votes in congressmore peace groups lobbying in district1991US-Nationaldata on Congressional voting, social movement presence and activities, attitudes of constituents
Maidenburg, M. and P. Meyer. 1970. "The Berkeley Rebels: Five Years Later." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. Abstracted in Public Opinion Quarterly 24(Fall):477-8.biographicaloccupational outcomes, continued participation in activism, radicalizationbeing arrested at protest1960sUS-Californiasurvey of former activists
Marshall, Susan (1995) Confrontation and Cooptation in Antifeminist Organizations. In
Myra Marx Ferree and Patricia Yancey Martin (eds.), Feminist Organizations. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 323–35.
inter-movementcollective identity of one movement shaped by othermovement counter-movement dynamics1970s-1990sU.S.-Nationalmovement publications
Marwel, Gerald, Michael Aiken, and N.J. Demerath. 1987. "The Persistence of Political Attitudes Among 1960s Civil Rights Activists." Public Opinion Quarterly 51:359-75.biographicalcontinued commitment to leftist attitudesnot specified1965-1984US-Southpanel survey of former white civil rights activists
McAdam, D. and H.S. Boudet. 2012. Putting social movements in their place: Explaining opposition to energy projects in the United States, 2000-2005. Cambridge University Press.politicaloutcome of energy facility proposals2000-2005U.S. (various locations)Newspapers, regulatory documentation, interviews, census data
McAdam, Doug (1988) Freedom Summer. New York: Oxford University Press.culturalmusic; languagenetwork connections1964-1970sUS-Mississippi; US-Nationalapplications of those who participated or planned to participate in Freedom Summer and follow-up interviews
McAdam, Doug, and Dieter Rucht (1993)The Cross-National Diffusion of Movement Ideas. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 528, 56–74.intra-movementspillovermedia; direct ties between activists in different countries; identification with activists in other country1960s-1970sUS-National; Germanycase studies of same movement in two different countries
McAdam, Doug, and Yang Su. 2002. "The War at Home: Antiwar Protests and Congressional Voting, 1965 to 1973." American Sociological Review 67(5): 696-721. politicalbringing measures to votedisruptiveness1965-1973US-Nationalprotest event data from the NYT
McAdam, Doug. (1995) ‘‘Initiator’’ and ‘‘Spin-off’’ Movements: Diffusion Processes in Protest Cycles. In Mark Traugott (ed.), Repertoires and Cycles of Collective Action. Durham: Duke University Press, 217–39.inter-movementspin-off movements; spilloverinspiration or factionalization; network ties between movementsn/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)
McAdam, Doug. 1983. "Tactical Innovation and the Pace of Insurgency." American Sociological Review 48(6): 735-754.intra-movementpace of black insurgencytactical innovation (bus boycott, sit-in, Freedom Rides, community wide protest campaigns, urban rioting)1955-1970US-NationalThe New York Times Index
McAdam, Doug. 1989. "The Biographical Consequences of Social Movement Activism." American Sociological Review biographicalactivist, marital, occupationalhigh risk activism requires a sort of conversion1983-1984US-Mississippipanel survey of 212 former Freedom Summer participants
McAdam, Doug. 1999. "The Biographical Impact of Activism." In How Social Movements Matter. Edited by Marco Giugni, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly, 117-146. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.biographicalhaving children, cohabitation, getting marriedparticipation in activism1943-1964US-Nationalrandomized national survey of U.S. residents born between 1943 and 1964
McAdam, Dough. 1995. "'Initiator' and 'Spin-Off' Movements: Diffusion Processes in Protest Cycles." In Repertoires and Cycles of Collective Action. Edited by Mark Traugott, 217-239. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.inter-movementspin-off movementsnetwork connectionsn/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)
McAdam. Doug. (1994) Culture and Social Movements. In Enrique Larana, Hank Johnston, and Joseph R. Gusfield (eds.), New Social Movements: From Ideology to Identity. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 36–57.culturalfashionnetwork connections1964-1970sUS-Mississippi; US-Nationalunclear
McCammon, Holly J., Karen E. Campbell, Ellen M. Granberg, and Christine Mowery. 2001. "How Movements Win: Gendered Opportunity Structures and U.S. Women's Suffrage Movements, 1866-1919." American Sociological Review 66(1): 49-70. politicalstate amendment ratificationpolitical opportunity + public opinion1866-1919US-Nationalstate-level data on suffrage won and other variables collected from secondary historical sources
McVeigh, Rory and David Cunningham. 2012. “Enduring Consequences of Right-Wing Extremism: Klan Mobilization and Homicides in Southern Counties.” Social Forces 90: 843-862.communityincreased homicide ratedisrupted community cohesion; mistrust in legal authorities; interpretations of conflict and conflict resolution that weaken constraints on violent behavior1960-1990US-Southcounty-level data
McVeigh, Rory, Carl Neblett, and Sarah Shafiq. 2006. “Explaining Social Movement Outcomes: Multiorganizational Fields and Hate Crime Reporting.” Mobilization 11: 23-49.politicalhate-crime reportingmulti-organizational fields, civil rights activism, political opportunities, grievances—especially resourcefulness, heterogeneity, and funding sources of nonprofit sector2001US-Nationalcounty-level data
McVeigh, Rory, Daniel J. Myers, and David Sikkink. 2004. "Corn, Klansmen, and Coolidge: Structure and Framing in Social Movements." Social Forces 83: 653-690.politicalpercentage voting for presidential candidateresonant framing in areas with structural congruence (especially in levels of industrialization, corn production, and proportions of minorities)1920-1924US-Indianacounty-level data (KKK strength, Republican voting, economic features, boundary construction)
McVeigh, Rory, Michael Welch, and Thor Bjarnason. 2003. “Hate Crime Reporting as a Successful Social Movement Outcome.” American Sociological Review 68: 843-867.politicalhate-crime reportingcivil rights organizations pressure local authorities, influence public opinion, and empower victims to report crimes2001US-Nationalcounty-level data
McVeigh, Rory. 2009. The Rise of the Ku Klux Klan: Right-Wing Movements and National Politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.politicaldepth of membership and pace of recruitmentpower devaluation theory: structural changes – especially declines in political, economic, and status exchange markets – generated incentives for white males to act collectively to maintain their power1900-1930US-Nationalcounty-level data, archival data (Imperial Nighthawk magazine)
Meyer, David S., and Nancy Whittier. 1994. "Social Movement Spillover." Social Problems, 41(2): 277–298.inter-movementspillovercoalitions198osUS-Nationalprimary and secondary data on two movements; interviews with activists form one movement
Meyer, David S., and Suzanne Staggenborg. 1996. "Movements, Countermovements, and the Structure of Political Opportunity." American Journal of Sociology 101 (6) (6): 1628–1660.inter-movementcreation of counter movementstates enable but do not satisfy challengersn/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)
Meyer, David, and Steven A. Boutcher. 2007. "Signals and Spillover: Brown v. Board of Education and Other Social Movements." Perspectives on Politics 5(1): 81-93.intra-movementspillover, emulationlitigation, shared personnel, 1946-2001US-Nationalnational rights organizations
Minkoff, Debra C. (1995) Organizing for Equality: The Evolution of Women’s and Racial- Ethnic Organizations in America, 1955–1985. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.inter-movementorganizational expansioncompetition and cooperation between movements1955-1985US-Nationaldatabase of national women's, African-American, Asian-American, and Hispanic-American organizations from Encyclopedia of Associations Entries
Minkoff, Debra C. (1997) The Sequencing of Social Movements. American Sociological Review, 62 (October), 779–99.inter-movementcreation of other movements and protest opportunitiesincreased organizational density of social movement sector enabled recourses and legitimacy1955-1985US-Nationaldatabase of national women's, African-American, Asian-American, and Hispanic-American organizations from Encyclopedia of Associations Entries
Mirowsky, John and Catheriine Ross. 1981. Protest group success: the impact of group characteristics, social control, and context. Sociol. Focus 14:177-92politicalgoal achievement; recognitionbureaucratic organization1800-1945US-NationalGamson's (1990[1975]) data
Moore, Kelly. 1999. "Political Protest and Institutional Change: The Anti-Vietnam War Movement and American Science." In Marco G. Giugni, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly (eds.), How Social Movements Matter. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 97–118.cultural; institutionalscience and scientific practicesdisruption of dominant institutions; vulnerability of dominant institutions1960s-1970sU.S.-Nationalunclear
Morris, Aldon (1981)The Black Southern Sit-in Movement. American Sociological Review, 46, 744–67.intra-movementspillover (tactics)strong or weak ties1960US-Southprimary data collected from archives and interviews with civil rights leaders
Mueller, Carol. 1987. "Collective Consciousness, Identity Transformation, and the Rose of Women in Public Office in the United States." In The Women’s Movements of the U.S. and Western Europe. Mueller, Carol, and Mary Katzenstein (eds.) Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 89-110.politicalelection of women to officenormative change1970sUS-Nationaldata on movement activity and public opinion
Nagel, Joane. 1985. "American Indian Ethnic Renewal: Politics and the Resurgence of Identity." American Sociological Review 60(6): 947–965.culturalcollective identitymovement participation1960s and 1970sUS-Nationalhistorical analyses and interview data
Naples, Nancy (2002) Materialist Feminist Discourse Analysis and Social Movement Research: Mapping the Changing Context for Community Control. In David S. Meyer, Nancy Whittier, and Belinda Robnett (eds.), Social Movements: Identity, Culture, and the State. New York: Oxford University Press, 226–46.inter-movementspillover (frames)movement frames are constrained by institutional and discursive contact (and so contemporary movements are similarly constrained)1960s-1970sUS-New York (NYC)activist life histories, newspaper account, archival data, annual reports, board meeting minutes, secondary sources
Nichols E. 1987. U.S. nuclear power and the success of the American anti-nuclear movement. Berkeley J. Sociol. 32:167-92politicalregulation passedintervening in regulatory process1960s-1980sUS-Nationaldata on movement activity and industry decisions and development
Obach, Brian (1999) The Wisconsin Labor-Environmental Network: A Case Study of Coalition Formation among Organized Labor and the Environmental Movement. Organization and Environment, 12 (1), 45–74.inter-movementspillover (goals)coalitions1980s-1990sUS-Wisconsinunclear, case study
Oldfield, John R. (1995) Popular Politics and British Anti-Slavery: The Mobilization of Public Opinion against the Slave Trade, 1784–1807. Manchester: Manchester University Press.culturalvisual culturemovements and markets1784–1807Great Britainunclear; historical case study
Olzak, Susan and Emily Ryo. 2007. “Organizational Diversity, Vitality and Outcomes in the African American Civil Rights Movement.” Social Forces 85: 1561-1592.politicalCivil Rights BudgetGains to organizational vitality related to tactical and goal diversity in social movement organizations1956-1989United StatesEthnic Collective Action Dataset (Olzak); Minkoff Times Series on Organizations; Congressional Budget on Civil Rights; Corporate and Philanthropic funding; Jenkins organizational data on NAACP organizations, Jenkins data on income inequality by race; Jenkins data on membership in African American churches
Olzak, Susan and Sarah A. Soule. 2009. “Cross-Cutting Influences of Protest and Congressional Legislation in the Environmental Movement." Social Forces 88: 201-225.politicalEnvironmental legislation and hearings in the U.S. Congressmobilization and demand for social change1961-1990USA & National PolicyDynamics of Collective Action Dataset; Policy Agendas Project information on Congressional Hearings and Legislation; Congressional Characteristics
Pedriana, Nicholas and Robin Stryker. 2004. The Strength of a Weak Agency: Early Enforcement of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Expansion of State Capacity, 1965-1971. American Journal of Sociology 110: 709-760.
politicalpolicy interpretationmovement legal tactics1965-1971US-Nationalstrategic narrative analysis of secondary and primary sources
Pescosolida, Bernice A., Elizabeth Grauerholz, and Melissa A. Milkie. 1997. Culture and Conflict: The Portrayal of Blacks in U.S. Children’s Picture Books through the Mid- and Late-Twentieth Century. American Sociological Review 62: 443–64.culturalliterature (children's)movements and markets1937-1993US-Nationalchildren's books
Piven, Frances Fox and Richard Cloward. 1977. Poor People’s Movements. New York: Pantheon Books.politicalpublic spendingdisruptive tactics + electoral instability1960s-1970sUS-Nationaldata sources: New YorkTimes;the Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders; Riot Data Review ,published by the Lemberg Center for the Study of Violence; Facts on File; and Congressional Quarterly
Quadagno, Jill. 1992. “Social Movements and State Transformation: Labor Unions and Racial Conflict in the War on Poverty.” American Sociological Review 57:616-34.politicalincorporation of movement meaning into policy/policy interpretationdemonstrations and public opinion1958-1968US-Nationalqualitative analysis of the development of job training programs
Radcliff B, Saiz M. 1998. Labor organization and public policy in the American states. J. Polit. 60:113–25.politicalspending on social programshigher union membership; greater representation of working class interests in politics1964-1982US-Nationalcross-sectional and time-series data on policy indicators (DV) and union density (IV)
Ray, Paul H. and Sherry Ruth Anderson. 2000. The Cultural Creatives: How 50 Million People Are Changing the World. New York: Crown/Random House. Pb. Three Rivers, 2001Cultural, Political, PersonalCultural ChangeNew Social Movements1960s-1998Mostly USSurvey Research, Historical, Personal Interviews
Reinart, Claire. 1995 ‘‘Moving onto the Terrain of the State: The Battered Women's Movement and the Politics of Engagement". In Myra Marx Ferree and Patricia Yancey Martin (eds.), Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women’s Movement. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 84-104.institutionalcreation of new institutions such as battered women's shelters, rape crisis centers, feminist health centersdrawing on resources available from the state and channeling them towards these new institutions1960s-1970sUS-Texasunclear
Rochon, Thomas R. 1997. Three Faces of the Freeze: Arena of Success and Failure. In Tom Rochon and David S. Meyer (eds.), Coalitions and Political Movements: The Lessons of the Nuclear Freeze. Boulder, CO: Lynn Rienner, 163-1977culturalpublic opinionmobilization for policy goals1980sUS-Nationalunclear; seems to just bring together secondary sources
Rochon, Thomas R. 1998. Culture Moves: Ideas, Activism, and Changing Values. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.culturalvalues, beliefs and opinions; languageframing; movement mobilization1950s-1990sUS-NationalJennings' Youth-Parent Socialization Panel Study, American National Election Study Series, Gallop Poll, Gamson's data, Negro Political Participation Study
Rochon, Thomas R., and Daniel A. Mazmanian. 1993. "Social movements and the policy process." Annuls of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 528(1):75–87.politicalfavorable policiesinclusion in decision-making bodies1980sUS-Nationalillustrative case studies of a movement success and failure
Rojas, Fabio. 2007. From Black Power to Black Studies: How a Radical Social Movement Became an Academic Discipline. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.institutionalThe institutionalization of a social movementendorsement, publicity, legitimation1960s-presentUS-Nationalhistorical case study
Rucht, Dieter. 1999. "The Impact of Environmental Movements in Western Societies." In Marco G. Giugni, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly (eds.), How Social Movements Matter. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 204-224.politicalpolicy changemovements change public opinion which then create pressure for policy changenot specifiedWestern Democraciesdata on environmental performance of OECD countries, data on movement activity
Rupp, Leila and Verta Taylor. 1987. Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women's Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960s. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.intra-movementspark new wave of same strugglecreation of abeyance structures1945-1960sUS-Nationalinterviews with movement leaders, archival data
Sabatier, Paul. 1975. “Social Movements and Regulatory Agencies: Toward a More Adequate and Less Pessimistic Theory of “Clientele Capture.” Policy Sciences 6:301-41.politicalpolice implementationinclusion in decision-making bodies1963-1972US_Nationalcase study of regulatory body and impacts on environmental conditions
Sarah A. Soule and Susan Olzak. 2004. “When Do Social Movements Matter? The Politics of Contingency and the Equal Rights Amendment, 1972–1982.” American Sociological Review 69: 473–497.politicalRatification of the Equal Rights Amendmentpolitical mediation effects of public support on effect of social movement protest1972-82U.S. State-level ratification processNOW organizational data; ERA ratification history; Electoral competitiveness in state, anti-ERA organizational strength; Public opinion favoring the ERA; Previous party votes in state, Political climate in state (innovativeness, liberal ideology)
Schock, Kurt. 2005. Unarmed Insurrections: People Power Movements in Nondemocracies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.politicalpolitical transformation, regime changeresilience, leveragenot specifiedSouth Africa, Philippines, Burma, China, Nepal, Thailand6 case studies of unarmed insurrections
Schumaker, Paul D. 1975. "Policy Responsiveness to Protest-Group Demands." Journal of Politics 37(2): 488-521.politicalpolicy response (repressive, no action, minimal, compromise, responsive)militancy/use of constraints (under some circumstances)1960s and 1970sUS-Nationaldata on protest incidents based on a content analysis of case studies on questionnaires
Sherkat, Darren E., and T. Jean Blocker. 1997. "Explaining the Political and Personal Consequences of Protest." Social Forces. 75(3): 1049–1070.biographicalmore liberal, "new class" occupations, more education, less religious, married later, less likely to have kidsprotest participationlate 1960sUS-NationalJennings' Youth-Parent Socialization Panel Study
Skocpol, Theda. 1992. Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.politicalpolicy implementationmobilization of gendered identities and ideologies + state and party structures OR more generally: a fit between group capacities/politicized identities/orientations and political institutions/the rules of the game1880-1931US-Nationaldata on when various social policies were passed
Small, Melvin. Johnson, Nixon, and the Dovespoliticalforeign policydemonstrations communicated public opinion to President1969US-Nationalpublic opinion poll data, citizen mail sent to White House, newspaper data, protest event data
Snow, David, and Robert Benford. 1992. Master Frames and Cycles of Protest. In Aldon Morris and Carol Mueller (eds.), Frontiers of Social Movement Theory. New Haven: Yale University Press, 133–55.inter-movementspillover (frames)master frames (social movement spillover)n/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)
Snyder, David, and William Kelly. 1979. "Strategies for Investigating Violence and Social Change: Illustrations from Analyses of Racial Disorders and Implications for Mobilization Research." In The Dynamics of Social Movements: Resource Mobilization, Social Control, and Tactics. Edited by Mayer N. Zald and John D. McCarthy, 212-237. Cambridge, MA: Winthrop.not specifiedachievement of goalsnot specifiedn/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)n/a (theoretical)
Soule S, McAdam D, McCarthy JD, Su. 1999. Protest events: Cause or consequence of state Action? Mobilization 4:239–56.politicalincreased congressional hearing and roll call votes (NULL Finding)collective action1956-1979US-Nationaldata on roll call votes, movement activity, and political opportunities
Soule, Sarah A. and Susan Olzak. 2004. "When Do Movements Matter? The Politics of Contingency and the Equal Rights Amendment." American Sociological Review 69:473-497.politicalstate amendment ratificationmovement efforts + elite allies + favorable public opinion + low electoral competition1972-1982US-Nationallongitudinal panel data on state-level ERA ratification (DV) and state-level characteristics, including the number of movement and counter-movement chapters (IV)
Soule, Sarah. 1997. The Student Divestment Movement in the United States and the Shantytown: The Diffusion of a Protest Tactic. Social Forces, 75, 855–83.intra-movementspillover (tactics)media1970s-1980sUS-Nationalnewspaper data on timing of protest events; data on universities and colleges where events were held
Soule, Sarah. 1999. The Diffusion of an Unsuccessful Innovation. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 566 (November), 120–31.intra-movementspillover (tactics)media; resonance1970s-1980sUS-Nationalcase study of particular tactic over time, exact data source is unclear
Staggenborg, Suzanne. 1986. Coalition Work in the Pro-Choice Movement: Organizational and Environmental Opportunities and Obstacles. Social Problems, 33 (5), 374–89.intra-movementcreation of other movementsopen up political opportunities1966-1983US-National; US-IllinoisSample of 13 pro-choice movement organizations, including six national organizations and seven state and local organizations
Staggenborg, Suzanne. 1995. ‘‘Can Feminist Organizations Be Effective?". In Myra Marx Ferree and Patricia Yancey Martin (eds.), Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women’s Movement. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 339-355.culturalcreation of social movement community (which includes alternative institutions, pools of activists, models of collective action, ideologies)organizations that are less effective at creating political changes (like radical consensus-based feminist organization) enable cultural shifts and the creation of communities which create resource pools for future mobilization1970sUS-Illinois (Chicago)case study of one organization, data source unclear
Stearns, Linda Brewster and Paul D. Almeida. 2004. "The Formation of State Actor-Social Movement Coalitions and Favorable Policy Outcomes.” Social Problems 51(4): 478-504.PoliticalEnvironmental PolicyMovement Alliances with Sectors inside the State1960-1990Historical and Archival Data
Steedly, Homer R., and John W. Foley. 1979. The success of protest groups: multivariate analyses. Social Science Research 8:1-15.politicalacceptance and new advantageswillingness to use sanctions; strong alliances1800-1945US-NationalGamson's (1990[1975]) data
Synder, David and William R. Kelly. 1976. "Industrial Violence in Italy, 1878-1903." American Journal of Sociology 82:131-62.politicalstrike wonviolence1878-1903Italydata on over 6,000 strikes from government records
Szymanski, Ann-Marie. 2003. Pathways to Prohibition. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.politicallegislation passedpolitical strategy, movement ideology, unstable political alignments1875-1919US-Nationalhistorical case study of laws, campaigns and tactics
Tarrow, Sidney. 1998. Social Protest and Policy Reform: May 1968 and the Loi d'Orientation in France. In Marco G. Giugni, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly (eds.), From Contention to Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 31-56.politicallegislation passedpolitical crisis created opening1968Franceunclear
Taylor, Verta, and Nancy E. Whittier. 1992. Collective Identity in Social Movement Communities: Lesbian Feminist Mobilization. In A. Morris and C. Mueller (eds.), Frontiers of Social Movement Theory. New Haven: Yale University Press, 104–29.culturalcollective identityinternal movement dynamics; contentious interactions1970sUS-Nationalpublished primary materials and interviews with activists
Taylor, Verta, and Nicole C. Raeburn. 1995. "Identity Politics as High-Risk Activism: Career Consequences for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Sociologists." Social Problems 42(2): 252–273.biographicalnegative career outcomesdiscrimination against and stigmatization of activists1981-1992US-Nationalsurvey and interview data on activists' reported experiences with discrimination and bias
Taylor, Verta. 1989. Social Movement Continuity: The Women's Movement in Abeyance. American Sociological Review, 54, 761–75.intra-movementspark new wave of same strugglecreation of abeyance structures1945-1960sUS-Nationaldocumentary material in public and private archival collections and interviews with activists
Tilly C, Tilly L, Tilly R. 1975. The Rebellious Century, 1830-1930. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Presspoliticaldepends on specific goals of the groupdisruptiveness/probability of violence1830-1930France; German; Italysample of violent events in published sources like newspapers
Turk, Herman, and Lynne G. Zucker. 1984. "Majority and Organized Opposition: On Effects of Social Movements." Pp. 275-69 in Research In Social Movements, Conflict And Change, Vol.7, L. Kriesberg, ed. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.politicallocal budgets/policy implementationmobilization creates pressure on those making budget decisions1977-1979Californiacounty level data from government budget records
Uba, Katrin. 2005. "Political Protest and Policy Change: The Direct Impacts of Indian Anti-Privatization Mobilizations, 1990-2003." Mobilization 10(3): 383-396.politicalpolicy changeeconomically disruptive protests1990-2003Indiaprotest data using the search command "(disinvestment OR privatization) AND (protest OR strike)" using Factivia database
Van Dyke, Nella, Doug McAdam, and Brenda Wilhelm. 2000. "Gendered Outcomes: Gender Differences in the Biographical Consequences of Activism." Mobilization: An International Journal 5(2): 161-177.biographicalgap between activists and nonactivists on life course measures were greater in female respondentsgender1993US-Nationalsurvey on life histories and activist experiences
Walgrave, Stefaan, and Rens Vliegenthart. 2012. "The Complex Agenda-Setting Power of Protest: Demonstrations, Media, Parliament, Government, and Legislation in Belgium, 1993-2000." Mobilization 17(2): 129-156.politicalchange in political agendanumber and size of demonstrations1993-2000Belgiumparliamentary questions and interpellations, government decisions, passed legislation, party manifestos, newspaper and TV news
Weigand, Kate (2001) Red Feminism. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.inter-movementspillover (frames)individual activists with membership in more than one movement; children of members of one movement join a different movement1940s-1970US-Nationalhistorical case study using published and unpublished primary sources
Whalen J, Flacks R. 1989. Beyond the Barricades: The Sixties Generation Grows Up. Philadelphia, PA: Temple Univ. Pressbiographicalpursuit of alternatives ways of living and making a living; occupation and income impactsfailure to achieve revolutionary political change --> focus on lifestyle change and withdrawing from conventional institutions1960sUS-Nationalinterviews with former activists
Whalen, Jack and Richard Flacks, 1980. "The Isla Vista 'Bank Burners' Ten Years Later. Notes on the Fate of Student Activists," Sociological Focus 13:215-36.biographicalcontinued commitment to leftist attitudes but not necessarily political activism; unconventional lifestylesdisillusionment with prospect for political change, focused on lifestyle change instead1980US-Californiafollow-up interviews with former activists
Whittier, Nancy. 1995. Feminist Generations: The Persistence of the Radical Women’s Movement. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Pressbiographical; cultural; intra-movementspin-off movementsfactionalization1960s-1980sUS-Ohiointerviews activists, organizational documents
Wilhem, Brenda. 1998. "Changes in Cohabitation across Cohorts: The Influence of Political Activism." Social Forces 77(1): 289-310.biographicalcohabitationleft-oriented political activism1943-1964US-Nationalrepresentative sample of native born U.S. citizens born between 1943 and 1964